V6calibra
Motronic ECU decoding


LATEST UPDATE:
Current Status on ability to decode Motronic 2.8:

Very little is known about the proprietary command and data frame structures used in communicating with the Bosch Motronic 2.8. Without this knowledge it may be possible to initiate communications with the ECU but impossible to control or make any sense of the returned data.
At this time there is no information available on the Motronic 2.8 frame structures and protocol.
The only way forward is to obtain this proprietary information from Opel/Vauxhall OR to reverse engineer the serial data comms format by listening in on the Tech1 when it communicates with the ECU using a serial sniffer.
If anyone is able to provide more information on this subject please share it with the community and email me

 


 

Bosch Motronic 2.8 was used in all V6 Calibras
GM ALDL
(assembly line diagnostic link) 8192 Baud Data stream
Asynchronous - 5v DC
8192 ALDL is one of many proprietary manufacturer protocols now grouped together and known as OBD I
OBD I is not a standard like OBD II is. It is simply a category for all prior technologies around before the introduction of the OBD II standard in the late 1990's. 
These Motronic 2.8 units are NOT reprogrammable (cannot flash EPROM)
Modifying the V6 ECU can only be achieved by replacing the main ECU chip or by using a 'piggyback' system to intervene with signals to & from the ECU.

What is an EPROM ECU?

An EPROM is an electrically programmable read-only memory, or a type of computer memory that can be programmed only once, but read an unlimited number of times. EPROM ECUs have such a memory IC installed in them. This memory holds the program code that controls the ECU behaviour. The EPROM is a separate chip from the microcontroller (computer chip) that actually runs the program. This makes it easy to change the ECU programming, since only the EPROM need be replaced, and EPROMs and their associated programming tools are relatively common.

 

In the last run of Motronic 2.8 ECU's it is rumoured that they switched to using a non-volatile EEPROM memory chip. This means that stored fault codes can only be cleared through a Tech1/2. Unplugging the battery does not work on these models. Faults will however clear with time once the fault has been repaired and is no longer recognised.

V6 Calibra C25XE - Bosch Motronic 2.8


Snapshot Mode - format of ECU output

 

The ECU can be instructed to go into Snapshot mode. In this mode it provides a constantly updating list of engine and ECU performance parameters. This list is sent as one single long data frame (?).

The list below represents the parameters which are passed and their position and format within the broadcast data frame. Where applicable any modifiers required to obtain actual engineering units are listed.

 

SNAPSHOT INITIATION AND GENERAL FORMAT NOTES:

## incomplete

 

 

This is what we have so far based on Tech 1a operation :

 

Data Parameter Identifier Description & Raw Signal Modifier Data Frame Byte Pos.
BATTERY VOLTAGE Voltage supplied to the Motronic ECU (volts DC)  
TPS SIGNAL Throttle valve Position Sensor signal (%)  
SIM. IDLE POS. SW Idle position on actual TPS sensor signal range (volts dc ?)  
SIM. FULL POS. SW Full throttle position on actual TPS sensor signal range (volts dc ?)  
INTAKE AIR TEMP. Air Intake Temperature sensor value (deg C)  
COOLANT TEMP. Coolant Temperature Sensor value (ECU CTS) (deg C)  
MASS AIR FLOW S. Signal from Mass Air Flow Meter  
ENGINE LOAD SIG. Inferred engine load in milliseconds calculated from the Mass AFM value  
KNOCK SIGNAL Signal from knock sensors (only when knock is being detected)  
VARIANT CODING Setting of variant coding plug (Side A or Side B)  
HALL SENSOR Camshaft Position Sensor value  
VEHICLE SPEED Processed signal output from odometer frequency sensor  
VEHICLE SP.PULSE Raw signal from odometer frequency sensor  
A/C INFORMAT. SW Air Conditioning Switch state (switch on the dash)  
A/C COMPESS. SW Air Conditioning Compressor status  
PARK/NEUTRAL SW. Auto only - Position of Auto Gear selector  
TORQUE CONTROL Auto only - Shift signal from Auto gearbox ECU  
FULL LOAD INHIB. Traction Control has been activated signal from TC ECU  
IGN./INJ. CUTOFF Ignition / Injection cut off signal received from TC ECU  
IGN. COIL CYL1+4 Ignition Coil is activating for cylinders 1 and 4  
IGN. COIL CYL2+5 Ignition Coil is activating for cylinders 2 and 5  
IGN. COIL CYL3+6 Ignition Coil is activating for cylinders 3 and 6  
ENGINE LOAD SIG. Processed engine load signal based on actual TPS value  
TPS LOAD SIGNAL Processed TPS value  
FUEL PUMP RELAY Fuel Pump Relay  
A/C CUTOFF RELAY A/C Compressor Cutoff Relay activated  
FUEL TANK VENT. Fuel Tank Vent Valve (Carbon Canister Vent Valve) activated  
ENGINE SP. PULSE Raw Ignition Pulse (RPM) from Crankshaft sensor  
DESIRED IDLE Normal desired engine idle speed (from variant coding plug and ECU MAPs) in RPM  
ENGINE SPEED Actual observed engine RPM when in idle mode  
DESIRED AIR IDLE Desired incoming air mass for target idle rpm (from ECU MAPS)  
ACTUAL AIR IDLE Actual incoming air mass when engine in idle mode  
IAC INTEGRATOR Integrator value of Idle Speed Control Valve adjustment  
IAC ADAPT. SLOPE Deviation of idle speed adjuster pulse ratio from value calculated by the ECU  
IAC BLOCK LEARN 'Learned' value of ISCV position  
O2 SENSOR LOOP Indicates whether ECU is operating in Open or Closed loop oxygen senor mode.  
O2 SENSOR Oxygen sensor value (in mV)  
O2 INTEGRATOR Integrator value of mixture correction factor  
O2 BLM IDLE THR. Learned mixture characteristic MAP value when operating in idle speed mode  
O2 BLM PART THR. Learned mixture characteristic MAP value when in partial engine load range  
SPARK ADVANCE Calculated Ignition firing angle (before top dead centre mark) currently being used by the ECU
(value is between -30 and + 30 degrees BTDC)
 
KNOCK RETARD Ignition timing adjustment to be applied to calculated Spark Advance value. This value comes from internal ECU Knock Function segment when knock is actively being detected through knock sensors.  
INJECTION PULSE Calculated Injection pulse period (pulse width) in milliseconds  
CHECK LIGHT Engine Management Fault light tripped (ON/OFF)  
DIAG. REQUEST Request received to go into diagnostic blink mode - snapshot suspend  
INJECTOR CUTOFF Injector cutoff triggered by internal ECU functions (O2 sensor feedback)  
CONTROLLED IAC Control Idle Air Speed Valve adjustment value  

 

 

 



PRINCIPLES BEHIND ECU OPERATION

FUEL MIXTURE GOALS:

It is desired that the correct amount of fuel to match the incoming air be sprayed into the engine. Generally there shouldn't be any extra air, or any extra fuel. Under light loads, the system will try to go slightly lean (extra air). Under heavy loads, the system will try to go slightly rich (extra fuel). The incoming air is measured by the mass air flow meter (hot film type); quantity of real air flow mass is achieved by adjusting for air intake temperature. Fuel quantity is estimated from an ECU look up table based on the specifications of the stock Bosch injectors.
When the ECU is in 'closed loop mode', the duration of the injector pulse dictates how much fuel is delivered and this is indirectly adjusted using feedback from the lambda sensor in the exhaust (rich/lean air/fuel ratio in exhaust gasses).

SPARK TIMING GOALS:

The sooner the spark is fired before the piston reaches the top (spark advance), the higher the resulting combustion temperature and pressure will be (a similar effect to increasing compression ratio). This will also allow a slightly greater time for the pressure to be applied to the piston. All of this results in more power and better fuel efficiency. CO and HC emissions are reduced because combustion is more complete. If the timing is advanced too much, however, an uncontrolled explosion will result (engine knock). This can cause engine damage (piston melting) and will increase NOx emissions because the extremely high temperatures will start to oxidize the normally unreactive nitrogen in the air. It is very desirable from performance, economy, and emissions standpoints that spark timing be advanced to just below the point where knock occurs. To this end the Motronic makes use of two knock sensors; One for each bank of cylinders. These sensors are used to detect the initial signs (precursors) at the onset of engine knock. The feedback from these sensors is used to help the ECU dynamically advance the ignition timing to optimum. They are basically small microphones bolted to the engine block which react to vibrations of a certain frequency. They scan every 100 milliseconds.

CONTROL MAPS AND ADAPTIVE TUNING:

When trying to determine the spark timing and fuel requirements, the Motronic system reads information from the operating sensors and then goes to some big look-up tables (or Control MAPS) that indicate the best guess for spark and fuel at that moment. The feedback sensors are then used to tweak the spark and fuel values towards an optimum. If a big 'tweak' was needed, then the firmware will change the value in the look-up table with the hope that it will be closer the next time that data point is used (Adaptive Tuning). All of this process is continuous, and it cycles and repeats at a high frequency. This adaptive tuning feature means that the Motronic is capable of 'learning' the specific settings for your engine. This also means that the ECU is able to re-optimise  engine tuning after minor modifications have been made (e.g. enlarged throttle body). However, this adaptive feature does have limits.

The Motronic system contains a 'base map' that is copied over to the active control map when the system loses power or is otherwise re-initialized. This is useful if there was a malfunctioning component or something else that caused the active map to get messed up. You can also force the adaptive map to reset to default after modifying engine components in order to learn a new set of adaptive parameters based on original values (rather than your engines old adaptive control maps).

 

How long does it take for adaptation to fully readjust the map after a change? Hard to say.

Some points on the map will be updated fairly quickly. Others might take a long time.

Remember that the map is fairly big. For a data point to be updated, it has to be used. To go through the whole map would require the engine to go through all the combinations of temperatures, loads, warm-up cycles, etc.


REPROGRAMMING THE SYSTEM:

Motronic 2.8 system stores the code on an EPROM chip. This needs to be physically replaced to update the ECU code and base reference maps. In order to do this yourself you would be best advised to download the original contents of the ECU EPROM (EPROM dump)........ understand it....... extract the control maps ......... make modifications and recode ...... then write it out to a new EPROM chip to replace the original.
This kind of activity requires specialist equipment and is beyond the scope of most DIY'ers.


 

DECODING THE SYSTEM:

To communicate with the Motronic ECU a dealer uses a handheld device known as a 'Tech 1'. This plugs in to the vehicles diagnostic socket and communicates over the vehicles ALDL bus. Serial asynchronous 5 volt DC pulses are used to communicate with (and control) the Motronic ECU. The Tech 1 is capable of performing the following actions and functions:
 

  • Read all diagnostic fault codes in text form (main ECU, ABS, TC, ATWS, Alarm, Immobiliser, airbag,  Auto gbox)
  • Reset/Clear fault codes
  • Snapshot data mode - continuously outputs all sensor values and derived ECU parameters
  • Reset airbag ECU and recode immobiliser transponder key
  • initiate actuator tests - ABS, Traction Control, Fuel Tank Vent Valve, etc.
  • dump a copy of the contents of all control map tables

 

 

The are two versions of the Tech1 which were used by Vauxhall. The early ones are just a Tech1 the newer ones are know as the Tech1a. You can easily tell the difference. Tech1 has a 15way D PLUG and the Tech1a has a 26way HD (3 line) D SOCKET. The Tech1a also has a power socket and a RJ45 socket on the side for connecting to the RS232 port of a PC (the Tech1 requires an additional cartridge to add this functionality)

They are very much functionally identical for most tasks. The main difference is you cannot program a MSC with a Tech1 unless you have the optional plug in communications module (with RJ45 socket). You also have to power the unit from the car (you can't power it on the bench!).

You need the Tech1 cartridge marked "Vauxhall/Opel 1987 - 1993" or later MSC version to communicate with the C25XE Motronic v2.8 ECU.

Tech2 superseded the Tech1/1a and is also capable of communicating with the Motronic 2.8

 

Both Tech1 and Tech2 are prohibitively expensive. When new this kit costs a dealer 2,500 - 5000. The now defunct Tech1/1a readers can occasionally be picked up for 200-500. It is useless without the correct application cartridge and cable however.

There are some aftermarket readers like 'ScanTool' which can also provide some limited functionality. These are also pretty expensive and aimed at a wide selection of vehicles and manufacturers.

It is reasonable to expect that a PC based solution would also be capable of communicating and controlling the ECU. The standard serial port on a PC or laptop can be connected to the ALDL bus using a custom cable and hardware interface. The interface is required to convert standard PC serial com port I/O to a 5 volt bi-directional half duplex signal.

 

 

 

Andy Whittaker's ALDL 8192 Interface

 


This ALDL interface can be used to talk to the Motronic 2.8 ECU but this isn't much good unless you know the command and data frame formats
 

The data is in TTL (i.e. 5V), bi-directional (half-duplex) format and runs at 8192bps.
8 data bits, no parity bit, and 1 stop bit
Commands to the ECU are organised into groups of bytes called command frames. In response to certain command frames the ECU sends data frames. Analysing these data frames on a PC requires you to first know the data frame format. For the Motronic 2.8 this information is not publicly available.

 

EFIlive v4 can be used to send ECU commands and receive results (http://www.efilive.com/scan_4.html). They offer a freeware version of their professional ECU tool in the downloads section.
Also try http://www.andywhittaker.com/ecu/download.htm for his FreeScan tool

 

Very little is known about the proprietary command and data frame structures used in the Bosch Motronic 2.8. Without this knowledge it may be possible to initiate communications with the ECU but impossible to control or make any sense of the returned data.
At this time there is no information available on the Motronic 2.8 frame structure and protocol.
The only way forward is to obtain this proprietary information from Opel/Vauxhall OR to reverse engineer the serial data comms by listening in on the Tech1 when it communicates with the ECU.
If anyone is able to provide more information on this subject please share it with the community and email me

 


 

 

SOME BACKGROUND AND RELATED INFORMATION:

 

8192 Baud Asynchronous Communications
from : http://www.geocities.com/MotorCity/Shop/9938/diagnostics/baud8192.html

General Description.
The 8192 GM data format is asynchronous serial data the same as your PC is capable of processing, The 8192 baud rate is non-standard, but you can set the PC to a close enough so that the PC will accommodate the error.

The GM system is a master/slave system. Thus feature allows the vehicle to have multiple computers on line and avoids collisions between talker. E.G. main ECU, Traction Control ECU
The user must initiate a short message to inform the receiving device that information is being requested. This message must conform to a specific format, describing the requested information as a block.

To Establish diagnostic communications between a P6 or P66  ECM or PCM and an outside computer do the following:


MESSAGE ID  = $F4
MESSAGE LENGTH = $56
MODE = $00
SUM CHECK

  •  
    MESSAGE ID  = $F4
    MESSAGE LENGTH = $56
    MODE = $00
    SUM CHECK

    MESSAGE ID  = $F4
    MESSAGE LENGTH = $57
    MODE = $01
    MESSAGE  = $00
    SUM CHECK
    or

    F45701B3
    MESSAGE ID  = $F4
    MESSAGE LENGTH = $95
    MODE  = $01
    data byte 1
                      x
                      x
    data byte 63
    SUM CHECK

    Possible data Reading Schemes:
    The commercial scan tools generally use a 6800 series Motorola processor to decode and display the data. These commercial systems also convert the output to a standard serial data  rate that is readable by a PC. The problem with all of this is it becomes a "kluge" of cables to set all of this up and the data format may not be what you want.

    A more attractive method would be to eliminate the real time display part and have a small Microprocessor, (PIC Chip) translate the data and store it in a flash memory chip. I have found it very difficult to read and interpret data while driving, particularly if I'm using the data to do a tune up. I prefer looking at the results on my desk top and in some cases graphing them in order to calculate new values.

    Other Communications Features:
    The serial communications has several modes Typically:
     


    An example of Mode 2:
     

    MESSAGE ID   = $F4
    MESSAGE LENGTH = $58
    MODE = $02
    Address MSB
    Address LSB
    CHECKSUM

     

    MESSAGE ID  = $F4
    MESSAGE LENGTH = $96
    MODE = $02
    data 1
        x
        x
    data 64
    SUM CHECK

    An example of Mode 3,
     

    MESSAGE ID   = $F4
    MESSAGE LENGTH = $65
    MODE = $03
    Address 1 MSB
    Address 1 LSB
          x
          x
    Address 8, MSB
    Address 8, LSB
    CHECKSUM

     

    MESSAGE ID  = $F4
    MESSAGE LENGTH = $63
    MODE = $03
    data 1
        x
        x
    data 8
    SUM CHECK

    An example of Mode 10,  "Clear Error Mode":
     

    MESSAGE ID   = $F4
    MESSAGE LENGTH = $56
    MODE = $0A
    CHECKSUM


     

    MESSAGE ID  = $F4
    MESSAGE LENGTH = $56
    MODE = $0A
    SUM CHECK

  •  

    LOTUS ELAN ECU INFO (from http://www.syntaxis-technology.co.uk/lotus/aldl.html)

    The format is standard NRZ serial data at 8192 baud, 8N1 format. You can use 9600 baud on a PC - the framing errors are not excessive.
    When the ALDL has a 10K resistor between Diag Request and ground, it goes into diagnostic mode [there are other modes, but they're not important]. The ECU will then sit and wait for you to talk to it. You send a framed command, which the ECU echos, and retrieve a block of data, containing current information about the engine status. Note that there's no flow control on the ALDL line, so once you've sent your command, read like hell to get the returned data.
    The data returned by the ECU in response is framed in a similar manner to your command. You can also enquire of trouble codes and clear them.
    The frame format is:

    Length Meaning
    1 byte Device ID
    1 byte VLI (86+N where there are N data bytes)
    1 byte message ID [command basically]
    N data bytes
    1 byte checksum (2's complement of the preceding bytes)

    The Elan ECU Device ID is F4.
    I'm documenting the possible message ID's at the moment, but they appear to be 00,01,02,03 and 06.
    Currently, 01 looks like the interesting one - it dumps a large block of data back.

    This is what is currently known about the Elan ECU data stream returned from a message of type 01.

    Byte offset Meaning Conversion
    9 Temperature C N*0.75 - 40
    12 Timing 1 per bit
    13 Timing (again) ditto, but 0 reference
    14 RPM 25RPM per bit
    34,35 Engine run time (seconds) 34=MSB, 25=LSB

     


    LINKS

    http://www.mskar.org/atlantis.php?page=Motronic%20Editor

    http://www.efilive.com

    http://www.andywhittaker.com  and  http://sourceforge.net/projects/freescan/

    http://www.diy-efi.org/gmecm/